Tyramine is a monoamine compound found in foods that have been aged or fermented. High levels of tyramines can also be found in spoiled food. If you are on medication classified as monoamine oxidase inhibitors, also known as MAOIs, eating foods that contain tyramine can cause serious and even fatal reactions. Even consuming as little as 6 to 8 mg of tyramine can increase your blood pressure and heart rate.
Aged cheeses contain tyramine. A 1-ounce portion of New York cheddar cheese contains 42 milligrams of tyramine and a 1-ounce portion of Canadian cheddar cheese contains 43 milligrams of tyramine. Other aged cheeses with high amounts of tyramine include Swiss cheese, Stilton, Camembert, Muenster, Mozzarella, blue cheese and Gorgonzola cheese. Processed cheese, such as American cheese, contains 0.2 to 1.6 milligrams of tyramine per 1-ounce serving and can be eaten in small quantities when following a low-tyramine diet.
As fermented beverages, some alcoholic drinks contain high amounts of tyramine. A 12-ounce serving of tap beer contains 38 milligrams of tyramine. Vermouth, Korean beer, Chianti red wine, sherry and liqueurs also contain high amounts of tyramine. A 4-ounce serving of red wine contains 0 to 0.6 milligrams of tyramine, and bottled or canned beer contains 1.5 milligrams of tyramine.
Aged meats also contain tyramine. A 1-ounce serving of aged chicken livers contains 60 milligrams of tyramine. Sausage, salami, hot dogs, bacon, corned beef, duck liver, pickled herring, smoked fish and caviar all contains high amounts of tyramine. A 1-ounce serving of pepperoni contains 1.75 milligrams of tyramine. Meats prepared with a meat tenderizer also contain tyramine.
Fermented, overripe and spoiled fruits and vegetables can contain tyramine. A 4-ounce serving of sauerkraut contains 3.5 to 14 milligrams of tyramine. Kim chee, fava beans, broad beans, pickles, olives and avocado also contain tyramine, as do fermented soy products, such as tempeh and tofu. Raspberries and figs contain small amounts of tyramine.
A 1-tablespoon serving of a concentrated yeast extract contains 1.5 to 34 milligrams of tyramine. One teaspoon of soy sauce contains 0.05 to 4.7 milligrams of tyramine. Thai and Vietnamese fish sauces and teriyaki sauce also contain tyramine.
Other foods with tyramine include gravies, meat extracts used in soups, ginseng and chocolate. Colas, coffee or teas with caffeine also contain high amounts of tyramine. Hot chocolate is also a source of tyramine.
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This article reflects the views of the writer and does not necessarily reflect the views of Jillian Michaels or JillianMichaels.com.